Jumat, 25 Juni 2010
Periode 1960 – 1969
Beberapa kejadian memberikan masukan terhadap pergeseran teoritis secara besar – besaran berkenan dengan teknologi instrusional pada akhir tahun 1950 dan awal 1960an, terutama peristiwa peluncuran sputnik pada tahun 1957 yang mencengangkan dunia. Akibat dari itu, terutama di Amerika, sekolah di kritik karena kegagalannya mengajarkan science dan matematika dalam kapasitas yang cukup. Karena itu tekanan lebih di alamatkan kepada teknologi instruksional, akibatnya terdapat dua konstruk teoritis muncul secara bersamaan yang mempengaruhi lapangan teknologi instruksional. Pertama yaitu pengaruh yang kuat dari aliran behaviorisme terhadap semua pendekatan belajar dan kedua adalah pendekatan sistem – sistem yang dating dari teknik mesin dan teknologi. Gerakan yang berbeda ini akhirnya melahirkan dan saling melengkapi yang di sebut dengan Pengajaran Terprogram. Gerakan kaum behavioris melahirkan pengembangan tujuan behavioral, karena diperlukan perumusan tingkah laju lebih lanjut dalam merancang sebuah proses pembelajaran.
Periode 1970 – 2983
Mendekati akhir tahun 1970, muncul kembali pendekatan kognitif dalam pembelajaran. Banyak ahli psikologi yang mengusulkan hal tersebut, salah satunya Wittrock. Menurutnya pendekatan kognitif berimplikasi bahwa belajar dan pengajaran secara ilmiah akan lebih produktif bila di pelajari sebagai sesuatu yang bersifat internal, yakni suatu proses kognitif berperantara dari pada sebagai produk langsung dari lingkungan, orang atau factor eksternal lainnya.
Periode 1983 – muthakir.
Pada masa ini berlangsung kekacau balauan akibat pertentangan dari landasan teoritik teknologi instruksional. Perbedaan pendapat ini terutama di alamatkan kepada para perintis audio visual. Seperti Salomon, yang menganggap audio visual itu sebagai agen informasi dan bukan sebagai stimulus yang berlangsung untuk respon tertentu. Lebih lanjut mereka berpendapat bahwa media tidak lebih dari kendaraan yang mengangkut para ahli ke konferensi pemecahan masalah dan member sumbangan terhadap pemahaman para ahli tentang masalah tersebut.
Apasih Teknologi Pendidikan?
Teknologi berasal dari bahasa Yunani yaitu Techne dan logos. Techne diartikan sebagain cara, pengetahuan, keahlian, keterampilan. Logos adalah ilmu.
Teknologi pendidikan diartikan sebagai hardware yang menunjang kegiatan dalam sistem pembelajaran.
Teknologi pendidikan juga diartikan sebagai keseluruhan komponen yang ada dalam sebuah sistem pendidikan baik peralatan – peralatan media teknologi maupun teknik – teknik pengembangan yang slalu progress menuju sebuah proses pembelajaran.
Konsep teknologi pendidikan
Secara konsep dan praktek memerlukan banyak perhatian segala pihak, tidsk hanyaguru.
Belajarnya sangat berkaitan dengan perkembangan psikologi siswa, pengalaman yang diperoleh siswa, kemampuan yang harus di pelajari, lingkungan yang kondusif sarana dan prasarana yang mendukung.
Klasifikasi Media Teknologi untuk Pendidikan
Ada beberapa pengklasifikasian media teknologi yang biasanya digunakan dalam sistem
pendidikan. Rudy Brezt mengklasifikasikan media teknologi untuk menjadi tiga unsur :
visual, suara, dan gerak. Briggs mengklasifikasikan menjadi tigabelas macam : objek, model,
suara langsung, rekaman, media, transparansi, film bingkai,film, televisi, dan gambar. Gagne
mengklasifikasikan menjadi tujuh media : pelontar stimulus belajar, penarik minat belajar,
contoh perilaku, member kondisi eksternal, menuntun cara berpikir, memasukan keahlian
ilmu, menilai prestasi dan member umpan balik.
Sistematis Perkembangan Teknologi Pengajaran
• Alat bantu visual
• Alat bantu audio-visual
• Komunikasi audio-visual
• Kontribusi ilmu pengetahuan perilaku
• Pendekatan sistem dalam pengajaran
• Dari komunikasi audiovisual dan pendekatan sistem ke teknologi
Keunikan teknologi pendidikan sebagi suatu bidang terapan terlihat dengan menggunakannya bermacam media, teknik, metode dan strategi pembelajaran yang penekanannya berfokus atau menyentuh individu secara pribadi serta menggunakan pendekatan sistem dalam pemecahan masalah
Bahwa perkembangan teknologi pendidikan di pengruhi oleh inovasi teknologi itu sendiri yang mempunyai dampak terhadap perkembangan proses belajar mengajar.
Agar Teknologi Pendidikan Efektif
• Tentukan tema yang berkaitan dengan kurikulum
• Sesuiakan tingkatan belajar
• Waktu mengajar
• Focus (memberikan garis besar topic)
Hal – hal yang mendukung Teknologi Pendidikan
• Sistem berfikir
• Desain sistem
• Kualitas pengetahuan
• Manajemen perubahan
• Sumber data dan informasi serta sarana dan prasarana pertikeran data dan informasi
• Informasi dan berkomunikasi secara cepat tanpa ada batasan wilayah, ruang, dan waktu
• Terbukanya sumber informasi yang tadinya susah diakses menjadi sanagt mudah
• Memperluas pergaulan sebagai makhluk social
• Dapat melaksanakan akses internet
• Relative lebih efisien dan lebih menarik
• Adanya ancaman virus
• Pembajakan karya intelektual
• Penyebaran situs – situs pornograpi
• Kurangnya interekasi antara guru dan siswa
• Berubahnya peran guru
• Kejomplangan dikalangan miskin
• Masih mahalnya mengakses
Kamis, 24 Juni 2010
To choose media technology, must appropriate with the material of lesson.
Learning election divided 2 methods there are:
Direct learning is teacher as the center from learning process and for examples of these methods are speech, practices and exercises.
Indirect learning is students involved to do action/observation. In here teacher just be facilitator.
Planning as prepare media to be used in process teaching and learning.
Process in teaching to decide and formulate with consistent decision to make process of teaching and learning very well.
There are several useful, one of those tech-edutech more of them very important, and the last affectivity in simple media.
All media that we used in educational technology so important, therefore those media including audio, visual, and audio-visual must be kept and maintained well.
• 5 MEDIAS :
1. AUDIO : RADIO AND EARPHONE
2. VISUAL : MAP AND REALIA
3. AUDIO-VISUAL : LAPTOP
• Radio is the transmission of signals by modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible light.
• Radio can be detected and transformed into sound or other signals that carry information.
• Radio included audio representation (you just can hear).
• English lesson usually uses a radio, especially for listening section.
The advantages of radio are :
We can get information about everything.
With radio, we can hear sounds and voice clearly.
Radio is a universal medium enjoyed by people at one time or another during the day at home, at work in office or school, and even in the car.
The disadvantages of radio are :
We cannot go back to ask important or misunderstand points.
Radio is a background medium. Most listeners are doing something else while listening, which means that your ad has to work hard to get their attention.
Radio also can add to electricity payment in office or school.
• A device that converts electric signals, as from a telephone, stereo, or radio receiver, to audible sound and fits over or in the ear.
• Earphone is a pair of small loudspeakers, or less commonly a single speaker, with a way of holding them close to a user's ears and a means of connecting them to a signal source such as an audio amplifier, radio or CD player.
• We are also known as headphone, earpiece, or stereo phones.
• Earphone is audio representation (you just can hear).
• English lesson usually also uses an earphone, especially for listening section in English laboratory.
The advantages use earphones are :
Earphone heard clearly than radio.
Earphone can connect with an audio amplifier, radio or CD player.
The disadvantages use earphones are :
If earphone be used continuous, can damage sense of hearing.
We can not hear clearly the voice when in outside heard noisy.
• Map is objects from real life or from the real world, as opposed to theoretical constructs or fabricated examples; especially, such objects used as instructional or classroom aids.
• Map is a visual representation (you just can see) an area, a symbolic depiction highlighting relationships between elements of that space such as objects, regions, and themes.
• Geography lesson especially in elementary school and junior high school usually uses a map to represent any space, real or imagined without regard to context or scale, for example; mapping.
The advantages use maps are :
Map gives a beautiful and a current pictorial view.
We can know the province name and location in the area or in the states.
We can be facilitated by map to looking for the locations or places in the areas.
The disadvantages use maps are :
Position location and scale are only approximate.
For students in elementary school, they are usually difficult to identify without symbols, and are often obscured other ground detail as, for example; buildings in wooded areas.
We need a long time to make a map.
• In education, realia (barang tiruan) are objects from real life used in classroom instruction by teacher to improve students understanding of other cultures and real life situations.
• Realia is a visual representation (you just can see).
• Science and Mathematics usually use realia to strengthen students as real objects.
The advantages use realia are :
Students can see and understand the objects like real life.
All students can be creative to make a realia, for example in Mathematics lesson, the students can make space buildings (bangun ruang) like cube, beam, prism, pyramid and etc.
Give a real experience for all students.
Durable (tahan lama/awet).
The disadvantages use realia are:
Not all school has a good and enough realia.
Sometimes, realia is too difficult to get.
• Laptop is a portable computer small enough to use in your lap.
• A Laptop is a personal computers designed for mobile use and small and lights enough to sit on a person's lap while in use.
• Laptop includes a screen, keyboard, and a track pad or trackball, which serves as the mouse.
• Laptop is audio-visual representation (you can hear and also see).
• Laptop is modern media education because laptop can be used to explain all lessons in school.
The advantages of laptop are :
Getting more work done. For example, students doing his/her homework at the school or university coffee shop during a break between lessons.
Immediacy. Carrying a laptop means having instant access to various information, personal and work files.
Connectivity can use Wi-Fi wireless networks, internet and local network connectivity others while remaining mobile.
The disadvantages of laptop are :
Laptop is too difficult to repair, upgrade or modify due to their closed and integrated design.
While in a desktop computer the possible configurations are almost unlimited, laptop configurations are limited to those provided by laptop manufacturers.
Laptop is an expensive media technology.
We must often recharge the battery from laptop because laptop needs a power after to be used.
Senin, 21 Juni 2010
DEFINITION OF COMPUTER – ASSITED LANGUAGE LEARNING (CALL)
• a form of computer – based learning which carries two important features : bidirectional learning individualized learning. It is not a method. CALL materials are tools for learning. The focus of CALL is lesrning, and not teching. CALL materials are used in teching to facilitate the language learning process. It is a student – centered accelerated learning.
CURRENT AND PAST LANGUAGE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS
I. Buenos Entonces
II. Rosetta Stone (software)
III. Rocket Languages (Software)
THEORETICAL BASIS FOR CALL INSTRUCTION DESIGN
• Computers have become so widespread in school and homes, and their uses have expanded so dramatically that the majority of language teachers now think about the implications. Technology can bring about changes in the teching methodologies of foreign language beyond simply automating fill-in-the-gap exercises. The use of the computer in and of itself does not constitute a teaching method, but rather the computer forces pedagogy to develop in new ways that exploit the computer’s benefits and that work around its limitations. To exploit the computer’s potential, we need language teaching specialists who can promote a complementary relationship between computer technology and appropriate pedagogic programs.
USE OF CAL FOR THE FOUR SKILLS
A number of studies have been done concering how the use of CALL affects the development of language learners four skills :
ADVANTAGES OF CALL
• Adapting learning to the student
• Critical thinking skills
PROBLEMS AND CRITICISMS OF CALL INSTRUCTION
• The problem with cost and the simple availability of technologycal resources such as the internet
• The limitations that current computer technology has can be problematic as well
• The technology is far from that point
• Most of the problems that appear in the literature on CALL have more to do with teacher expectations and apprehensions abouut what computers can do for the language learner and teacher.
THREE PHRASES OF CALL
• Behavioristic CALL
• Communicative CALL
• Steps toward integrative CALL : multimedia
Steps toward integrative CALL : the Internet
A TYPOLOGY OF CALL PROGRAMS AND APPLICATIONS
Computer as Tutor
• Text reconstruction
• Computer as Stimulus
COMPUTER AS TOOL
• Word processing
• Grammar Checkers
• Collaborative writing
The history of CALL suggests that the computer can serve a variety of uses for language teaching. It can be a tutor which offers language drills or skill practice : or a tool for writing and research. With the advent of the Internet, it can also be a medium of global communication and a source of limitless authentic materials.
Minggu, 20 Juni 2010
USE INTERNET AS AN EDUCATIONAL MEDIA AND FUNCTIONALIZATION EMAIL, BLOG, SOCIAL WEB, IN EDUCATION ERA
What is the Internet ?
The Internet is a confederation of thousands of computers from various sectors of society such as education, business, government and military. It is a network of thousands of computer networks (Lewis, 1994). Each individual system brings something different to the whole (databases, library services, graphs, maps, electronic journals, etc), and the end result us a vast accumulation of information. It is a worldwide network of computers that interact on a standardized set of protocols which act independently of particular computer operating systems, allowing for a variety of access methods to the Internet.
It can be used to both exchange information through electronic mail, newsgroups, professional on-line discussion groups, and so forth, as well as to retrieve information on a variety of topics through the World Wide Web.
ADVANTAGES OF THE INTERNET :
The internet provides opportunities galore, and can be used for a variety of things. Internet some of the things that you can do via the Internet are :
* E-mail : E-mail is an online correspondence system.
* Access Information : The Internet is a virtual treasure trove of information.
* Shopping : Along with getting information on the Internet, you can also shop online.
* Online chat : There are many 'chat rooms' on the WEB that can be accessed to meet new people, make new friends, as well as to stay in touch with old friends.
* Downloading Software : This is one of the most happening and fun things to do via the internet.
DISADVANTAGES OF THE INTERNET :
* Personal Information : If you use the Internet, your personal information such as your name, address, etc. can be accessed by other people.
* Pornography : This is very serious issue concerning the Internet, especially when in comes to young children.
* Spamming : This refers to sending unsolicited e-mails in bulk, which serve no purpose and unnecessarily clog up the entire system.
That said, the advantages of the Internet far outweigh the disadvantages, and millions of people each day benefit from using the Internet for work and for pleasure.
Describing about Language Laboratory
* The language laboratory is an audio or audio visual installation used as an aid in modern language teaching. they can be found, amongst other places, in schools, universities and academies.
* for the current language laboratory is used for language teaching, such as English, other foreign languages. however, a set of language laboratory can be used as a means of supporting all the lessons or all of the materials.
SPACE OF LANGUAGE LABORATORY
* Space with a single table row
single student desk set with 50-70cm distance between the tables. the distance is adjusted by the area. Design space like this is suitable for all types of language laboratories. Student centered view to the front and the instructor can pay attention to every face of the students directly.
* Space with double table row
Distance between table set-width 50-70cm. Design space is also ideal for all types of language laboratories. Only if used to partition the view of students is limited. Student centered view to the front and the instructor can pay attention to every face of the students directly.
* Space with a row of U shaped table
With this design you can use a single table or multiple tables. The middle of the space left blank. these empty spaces can be used for its demonstration of a person or group of students who are doing certain scenes. While other students watched and discussed these activities.
* Space with group table
In this type of table space design students created groups. Each group contains a box shaped table 4 students. Instructors can provide the sheet material in each group for later discussion.
Operating System Language Laboratory, MEDIA LAB centered on a device called the "Master Control Interface", which has embedded in it "Software Control Panel" menu that contains communications programs, including :
* Tape, VCD, DVD
* Head Set and Speaker Room
OPTION PROGRAM :
* all heard
* all talk
* call students
* turn off program
TEACHING MATERIALS IN THE RIGHT LANGUAGE LABORATORY
* Listening : Students listen through the help of electronic devices that are available.
* Conversation : Students perform various types of conversations.
TYPES OF CONVERSATION
* pair row and pair column
* fix group
* random group
Sabtu, 19 Juni 2010
Microsoft power point is application program presentation that the most popular and the most used now. Usingpower point, you can make presentation more than interesting, easy, and fast.
Microsoft power point 2007 have new user interface (UI) to replace menu, toolbar and taskbar, it called ribbon. the function of ribbon is helping to work more productive and the facilities of microsoft power point is easy to use.
A. How to Operate Microsoft Power Point
For operating Microsoft Power Point, the steps are :
1. Click start on taskbar
2. choose and click all program
3. choose microsoft office
4. choose microsoft power point
B. How to Make a New Slide
In slide, you can create and write something as like text, diagram, sound and ect. for make a new slide, the steps are :
1. click home on taskbar
2. choose new slide that you like
C. How to Give Animations Effect in Slide
Animations Effect make your slide presentation more interesting.
For make animation Effect, the steps are :
1. choose and block text or picture that you want to add animation
2. click animation on taskbar
3. choose and click custom animations until show the dialo box
4. click add effect and choose effect that you want
D. How to Make Themes
For use themes on your slide, the steps are :
1. choose slide that you like
2. click design tabs
3. in themes group, choose themes that you want
E. How to Give Picture or Object in Slide
Add object or picture can make your slide presentation is beautiful and interesting. for give object or picture, the steps are :
1. choose slide that you want to add picture
2. click insert tabs
3. in illustration group, choose clip art
4. wait until show the dialog box
5. choose picture that you want
F. How to Add Sound
In Power Point, you can add sound. The steps are :
1 . choose slide that you want to add sound
2. click insert tabs
3. In media clips, choose and click sound
4. choose sound from file, if you want to add sound from specific folder
G. How to Give Movie
In Power Point, you can add movie. the steps are :
1. choose slide that you want to add movie
2. clik insert tabs
3. in media clips, chose and click movie
4. choose movie from file, if you want to add movie from specific folder
H. How to Operate Slide Show
Slide show use for showing slide presentation on computer screen.
for operate slide show, the steps are :
1. click few tabs
2. In presentation views group, click slide show view
Jumat, 18 Juni 2010
What is an Overhead Projector?The overhead projector is probably one of the most versatile and useful visual aids that has been made available to the modern day lecturer. The overhead projector has long since replaced the traditional chalkboard as one of the main teaching aids and is used in lecture theaters and classrooms all over the world.
Even though computer-based data projectors are increasing in popularity, they are indeed very expensive and this means that they are in no way a match for the overhead projector. Therefore, it is very important for lecturers and teachers to know how to use overhead projectors effectively, so as to exploit its potential to the maximum level.
What are the Strengths of the Overhead Projector?
The overhead projector definitely has a number of advantages that would outdo most other visual teaching aids. For instance, a lecturer can use it in just the same way that he or she would use a chalkboard, but the biggest advantage would be that with the overhead projector, lecturers all over the world now get to face the whole class and maintain eye contact all times with their students instead of having to turn around and write. As a teacher, you would know that this eye contact plays a very big role in both facilitative as well as expository teaching, and serves both as a means of receiving feedback from the class on how good or bad the session is and as an outward non-verbal communication medium for the teacher.
Another very important benefit that the overhead projector has over the chalkboard is that it is multi-purpose and can be used to present pre-prepared material, which enables lecturers to build notes, tables, diagrams, and so on., and these can be used anytime, repeatedly.
If designed well and planned well, these overhead transparencies will provide all the aides and cues that are needed during a lecture, so that you don’t have to resort to the conventional note taking. These overhead transparencies are fairly compact when you compare them with some of the other types of visual aids like charts and can easily be stored in boxes, folders, files, or large envelopes.
As compared to most other projected visual aids, the overhead projector also has another big advantage, as it does not require a room to be darkened, so it allows students to take notes easily. It can also be used in any kind of room, except ones with extreme bright lights or in the direct sunlight.
The overhead projector is quiet, ‘user friendly’ and clean and requires no technical knowledge or skill on the part of the person operating it apart of course from the ability to change the lamps occasionally.
What are the Weaknesses of the Overhead Projector?
The drawbacks of the overhead projector include the basic fact that it requires a constant power supply and also requires a white flat surface on which its image can be projected. Another disadvantage is that if the surface is not suitable inclined at the correct angle, the image will suffer from a phenomenon called ‘keystoning’.
Unlike marker boards and chalkboards, overhead projectors require a small amount of maintenance. They are more likely to crack or break, so you must be very careful and always keep a spare bulb close at hand. Another disadvantage is that some teachers find the glare that is emitted from the overhead projector quite bothersome, even though this can be overcome by attaching a shade to the device.
Besides these hardware ‘glitches’, the basic problems that are associated with the overhead projectors arise from the fact that most users do not really provide enough thought or consideration to the production of their display material. The writing is generally too untidy or too small and cant be read easily, and apart from this it could also extend beyond the area of transparency. Lecturers and teachers always forget that this illuminated projection area in the overhead projector is not the same exact size as the acetate sheets that produce the transparencies. However, most overhead projectors are still of the older ‘square’ variety.
Lastly, lecturers and teachers tend to overuse these projectors only because they are so convenient. They employ it in situations where, on other occasions, other visual aids would have been more effective.
The advantages of using an OHP
Obviously the OHP, being economically and ecologically sound, can dramatically reduce the amount of paper used for photocopies: anything that can be photocopied can also be photocopied onto an OHT.
- Then again, if you want to give your students a record of the lesson, you can give them a photocopied paper version later.
- If you use an OHP you are effectively telling your students that your lesson has been well prepared and not something you thought of just before class.
- Your students can prepare visual stimuli themselves for presentations or class talks, or work together on separate strips of an OHT to put together an article or story, giving them a sense of achievement.
- You can photocopy a student’s work or a model composition onto an OHT and discuss its merits with your class. Similarly you can quickly present the answers to an exercise or a text which has been dictated for students to compare with their own, just as you can project the tape script after a listening exercise to point out anything of note such as new vocabulary to your students.
- The OHP also accommodates different learning styles and multiple intelligences as you can use colour for the text or drawings. Not only are colours and shapes attractive but they will appeal to and help your more visual learners and those who have a higher visual or spatial intelligence.
- There is lots of material that can be used for expressive speaking activities, such as photos, cartoons, maps, charts and diagrams, and of course you can make your own pro-forma game board of your favourite game or even TV quiz show.
- The OHP minimizes the time the teacher spends writing on the board, with his or her back to the class. You have, therefore, simultaneous control over your class and your materials. Materials can be prepared in advance but the teacher can also make additions. If you are bad at drawing it gives you the opportunity to prepare your picture: ‘Here’s one I made earlier’ solves your problem when your students can’t recognise what you are trying to draw. On the other hand pictures drawn spontaneously can of course be kept and used in later lessons. Again, students like this because it is something they have helped to create.
- You also have more control over the presentation of a text or an image since you can choose to modify it by masking or revealing parts of it. The OHP also allows the teacher to make a text or picture instantly available to the whole class. Finally, it offers variety and can be used to change the pace at any point in the lesson, aiding concentration and providing a useful role in discussions, role-plays and many other pair, group or whole class activities.